Since previous to Dilapidated Greece and the principal Chinese language Dynasties, other folks beget sought to realise and learn extra about the moon.
Curiosity and centuries of test culminated within the principal moon landing within the 1960s. But there beget been many other tried moon landings, both previous to and after.
This chart by Visual Capitalists’ Preyash Shah illustrates the general moon landings the usage of NASA records since 1966 when Soviet lander Luna 9 touched down.
Gallop to the Moon
The 1960s and 1970s marked an period of intense competition between the U.S. and the Soviet Union as they raced to overcome the moon.
Throughout the Chilly Warfare, place grew to alter into a priority as every facet sought to illustrate the prevalence of its know-how, its militia firepower, and its political-monetary machine.
In 1961, President John F. Kennedy region a national goal to beget a crewed lunar landing and return to Earth.
After several failed attempts from both facet, on July 20, 1969, the Apollo 11 mission modified into winning and astronauts Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin grew to alter into the principal folk to region foot on the moon.
|Mission||Launch Date||Operator||Country||Mission Form|
|Ranger 3||26-Jan-62||NASA||🇺🇸 U.S.||Lander||Spacecraft failure|
|Ranger 4||23-Apr-62||NASA||🇺🇸 U.S.||Lander||Spacecraft failure|
|Ranger 5||18-Oct-62||NASA||🇺🇸 U.S.||Lander||Spacecraft failure|
|Luna E-6 No.2||4-Jan-63||OKB-1||☭ USSR||Lander||Launch failure|
|Luna E-6 No.3||3-Feb-63||OKB-1||☭ USSR||Lander||Launch failure|
|Luna 4||2-Apr-63||OKB-1||☭ USSR||Lander||Spacecraft failure|
|Luna E-6 No.6||21-Mar-64||OKB-1||☭ USSR||Lander||Launch failure|
|Luna E-6 No.5||20-Apr-64||OKB-1||☭ USSR||Lander||Launch failure|
|Kosmos 60||12-Mar-65||Lavochkin||☭ USSR||Lander||Launch failure|
|Luna E-6 No.8||10-Apr-65||Lavochkin||☭ USSR||Lander||Spacecraft failure|
|Luna 5||9-Would perchance well-65||Lavochkin||☭ USSR||Lander||Spacecraft failure|
|Luna 6||8-Jun-65||Lavochkin||☭ USSR||Lander||Spacecraft failure|
|Luna 7||4-Oct-65||Lavochkin||☭ USSR||Lander||Spacecraft failure|
|Luna 8||3-Dec-65||Lavochkin||☭ USSR||Lander||Spacecraft failure|
|Luna 9||31-Jan-66||Lavochkin||☭ USSR||Lander||A success|
|Surveyor 1||30-Would perchance well-66||NASA||🇺🇸 U.S.||Lander||A success|
|Surveyor 2||20-Sep-66||NASA||🇺🇸 U.S.||Lander||Spacecraft failure|
|Luna 13||21-Dec-66||Lavochkin||☭ USSR||Lander||A success|
|Surveyor 3||17-Apr-67||NASA||🇺🇸 U.S.||Lander||A success|
|Surveyor 4||14-Jul-67||NASA||🇺🇸 U.S.||Lander||Spacecraft failure|
|Surveyor 5||8-Sep-67||NASA||🇺🇸 U.S.||Lander||A success|
|Surveyor 6||7-Nov-67||NASA||🇺🇸 U.S.||Lander||A success|
|Surveyor 7||7-Jan-68||NASA||🇺🇸 U.S.||Lander||A success|
|Luna E-8 No.201||19-Feb-69||Lavochkin||☭ USSR||Lander||Launch failure|
|Luna E-8-5 No.402||14-Jun-69||Lavochkin||☭ USSR||Lander||Launch failure|
|Luna 15||13-Jul-69||Lavochkin||☭ USSR||Lander||Spacecraft failure|
|Apollo 11||16-Jul-69||NASA||🇺🇸 U.S.||Lander/
|Kosmos 300||23-Sep-69||Lavochkin||☭ USSR||Lander||Launch failure|
|Kosmos 305||22-Oct-69||Lavochkin||☭ USSR||Lander||Launch failure|
|Apollo 12||14-Nov-69||NASA||🇺🇸 U.S.||Lander/
|Luna E-8-5 No.405||6-Feb-70||Lavochkin||☭ USSR||Lander||Launch failure|
|Apollo 13||11-Apr-70||NASA||🇺🇸 U.S.||Lander/
|Luna 16||12-Sep-70||Lavochkin||☭ USSR||Lander||A success|
|Luna 17||10-Nov-70||Lavochkin||☭ USSR||Lander||A success|
|Apollo 14||31-Jan-71||NASA||🇺🇸 U.S.||Lander/
|Apollo 15||26-Jul-71||NASA||🇺🇸 U.S.||Lander/
|Luna 18||2-Sep-71||Lavochkin||☭ USSR||Lander||Spacecraft failure|
|Luna 20||14-Feb-72||Lavochkin||☭ USSR||Lander||A success|
|Apollo 16||16-Apr-72||NASA||🇺🇸 U.S.||Lander/
|Apollo 17||7-Dec-72||NASA||🇺🇸 U.S.||Lander/
|Luna 21||8-Jan-73||Lavochkin||☭ USSR||Lander||A success|
|Luna 23||16-Oct-75||Lavochkin||☭ USSR||Lander||Partial failure|
|Luna E-8-5M No.412||16-Oct-75||Lavochkin||☭ USSR||Lander||Launch failure|
|Luna 24||9-Aug-76||Lavochkin||☭ USSR||Lander||A success|
|Chang’e 3||1-Dec-13||CNSA||🇨🇳 China||Lander||Operational|
|Chang’e 4||7-Dec-18||CNSA||🇨🇳 China||Lander||Operational|
|Beresheet||22-Feb-19||SpaceIL||🇮🇱 Israel||Lander||Spacecraft failure|
|Chandrayaan-2||22-Jul-19||ISRO||🇮🇳 India||Lander||Spacecraft Failure|
|Chang’e 5||23-Nov-20||CNSA||🇨🇳 China||Lander||A success|
|Hakuto-R Mission 1||11-Dec-22||ispace||🇯🇵 Japan||Lander||Spacecraft failure|
|Chandrayaan-3||14-Jul-23||ISRO||🇮🇳 India||Lander||A success|
|Luna 25||10-Aug-23||Roscosmos||🇷🇺 Russia||Lander||Spacecraft failure|
After the Apollo missions, the fervor of lunar exploration waned. From 1976 to 2013, no moon landing attempts came about attributable to finances constraints, appealing priorities, and advances in robotic missions.
On the opposite hand, a recent chapter in place exploration has unfolded in newest years, with rising gamers entering the cosmic arena. With its Chang’e missions, China has made essential strides, landing rovers on the moon and exploring the a ways facet of the moon.
India, too, has asserted its presence with the Chandrayaan missions. In 2023, the country grew to alter into the 4th nation to attain the moon as an unmanned spacecraft landed advance the lunar south pole, advancing the country’s place ambitions to learn extra about the lunar ice, potentially one in every of the moon’s most dear sources.
Exploring Lunar Water
Since the 1960s, even previous to the ancient Apollo landing, scientists had theorized the means existence of water on the moon.
In 2008, Brown University researchers employed favorable know-how to reexamine lunar samples, discovering hydrogen within beads of volcanic glass. And in 2009, a NASA instrument aboard the India’s Chandrayaan-1 probe confirmed the presence of water on the moon’s surface.
Water is deemed an necessary for future place exploration. Beyond serving as a likely offer of drinking water for future moon explorations, ice deposits would perchance perchance play a pivotal fair in cooling tools. Lunar ice would perchance perchance also be broken the general vogue down to function hydrogen for gas and oxygen for respiration, needed for supporting extended place missions.
With a reinvigorated interest in exploring the moon, manned moon landings are on the horizon as soon as extra. In April 2023, NASA conducted tests for the start of Artemis I, the principal American spacecraft to goal for the moon since 1972. The company goals to send astronauts to the moon spherical 2025 and form a defective camp on the lunar surface.